Thursday, February 4, 2010

New Ideas

Project Summary.

The project will examine the links between:

• athlete education and anti-doping;
• a sustainable career structure, job security, and anti-doping; and
• the social organisation and norms of the peloton and anti-doping.

Issues brought to light during research undertaken on behalf of the Commonwealth Department of Health & Ageing by Deakin University (2009 “Doping and Australian Professional Cycling”) have included career structure, post career planning and opportunities and education as factors influencing decisions not to engage in practices that contravene anti-doping law and policy.

In our current project we have undertaken a number of semi-structured interviews with both members of the peloton and their cohort. An objective of these semi-structured interviews has been to ascertain the 'discursive storylines' that cyclists and their cohort identify with in order to comply or not with the objectives of anti-doping policy. Semi-structured interviews are valuable as a qualitative method of research and through the adoption of co-research techniques they also become tools for education and the self examination of those interviewed. The current project has informed the view that these storylines are as much a part of the rules of competition and structures and systems that set the limits to policy action, both by defining activities that are acceptable and those that are not. The norms embedded in existing cultures and structures are emerging as more significant than the actual anti-doping codes and other legislative instruments designed to thwart doping in cycling.

Throughout the semi-structured interviews a number of common themes have arisen by which cyclists and their cohort rationalise their anti-doping choices. On formulating this proposal for the 2010 ADRP round of grants we have preliminarily identified certain rationales of the cyclists as being fruitful areas of further research. The aim of further research is to build upon our current work and to make further contributions to the development of a sustainable anti-doping policy in cycling. The rationales and themes identified are not entirely consistent with the existing dominant policy rationales but are capable of being mapped onto the institutional rationales in a meaningful and productive manner. They include:

• the need to ensure and protect the job security and sustainability of an athlete's career;
• the need to protect the job security of fellow athletes and team staff such as directors, masseurs and mechanics;
• the desire to support oneself, and one’s family economically;
• the desire of the athlete to feel that their sporting achievements are genuine without doubts as to the manner in which they are achieved;
• the role and relevance of the social nature of the peloton as a group and as a regulatory mechanism; and
• the need to preserve the integrity of the individual athlete's and their family’s health.

Project Description.


The project will examine the links between:
• athlete education and anti-doping;
• a sustainable career structure, job security, and anti-doping; and
• the social organisation and norms of the peloton and anti-doping.
In exploring the links between career structure, job security, education and anti-doping we will investigate:
• the role and need for education as a preventative measure in anti-doping policy;
• the role of career structure and post athlete careers as a preventative measure in anti-doping policy; and
• the role of the peloton’s social sense and norms as a preventative and enforcement measure in anti-doping law and policy.

In particular we will:

• explore the relationship between internal team anti-doping, training and medical programs and reporting, the biological passport and the collegiality of the peloton as viable and sustainable anti-doping mechanisms;
• explore the links between the peloton as a community, the place and role of broader education and mechanisms that may lead to greater job security and sustainability of a cyclist’s career;
• explore interrelationships between the peloton, education, career structure, contractual arrangements and anti-doping sanctions;
• explore the relevance of an ethics and the care of the self approach (both individual and community) and its place as a source of normalising ethics for the peloton;
• explore ways in which the athlete can be prioritised as a person instead of, solely focused on winning, and whether this changes the nature of the problem and its regulation; and
• explore ways in which anti-doping and sports policy in general may be further configured around the ideas of building the character and value systems of professional cyclists.
We will test the hypothesis that:
• first, the relationship between education, career structure, community norms, contractual arrangements and anti-doping sanctions determine doping behaviour; and,
• second, that a focus on these factors can alter, reduce or eliminate doping.


The Social Aspect of the Cycling Peloton.

Semi-structured interviews conducted as a part of our current project have identified the peloton as a group or a community. References to the peloton include that it has its own internal control mechanisms based upon what was described as a feeling of “solidarity”, “mateship”, “camaraderie” and “brotherhood” whereby actions that were deemed to be unacceptable or inconsistent with the ethics of professional cycling were regulated by other members of the peloton. The following extract from the interviews illustrates this point.

The community aspect of professional cycling is probably one of the powerful things that people don't realise, for instance in terms of moral sanctioning, or sanctioning against stupid acts in the peloton … so there is quite a strong cohesive kind of morality that floats through the peloton because if you do something stupid that causes injury to one of the riders or some other team you are actually threatening their ability to earn a living, to support their family … so it is quite heavily sanctioned … against unnecessary stupidness … and the other thing is that whether you are the smallest or the biggest rider in the peloton everybody has to go through the same hills and do the same kilometres, so there’s quite an egalitarian kind of good will that reigns in the peloton and that’s one of the very enjoyable things about it.

Bird and Wagner (1997) have commented upon the role of collegiality in enforcing norms in sport and as mechanisms that may be utilised to limit and overcome collective self damage or injury to a sport through rule violation such as doping practices. We seek to revisit the remarks of these authors in the light of our current project with the view of further exploring the relationship between internal team training and medical programs and reporting, the biological passport and the collegiality of the peloton as anti-doping mechanisms.

Collegiality is one aspect of community form, the other of which is what may be called the organisational milieu (adapted from the classic article by W R Rosengren, 1964; see also Dishan Kundar, 2002). The milieu is organisationally distinct from the normative bureaucracy adopting instead a flattened authority and communication structure which affects decision making of the subjects to each other and themselves. Beyond this it may refer to the informal mechanism of governance and self-governance arising spontaneously and collectively within the group and promoting norms of collective self-fashioning counterbalancing the individualistic ethos of competition. Rather than the organisation holding the subject in ‘custody’, the milieu and its process allows subjects to define themselves as full participants.

Another quote from the current project helps illustrate this link:
I think possibly that cyclists start to realise that actually the sport has been threatened, their income has been threatened by this … and the expectation that they could carry on as before … I hope it has because the riders do seem to accept that all these things (the anti-doping controls) … they seem to be accepting the impositions of all, that this is what they need to do to pursue this sport. Basically it (the choice to dope or not) is an economic decision.
In the light of this we seek to explore the links between the peloton as a community, the place and role of broader education and mechanisms that may lead to greater job security and sustainability of a cyclist’s career and contribute to an effective and sustainable anti-doping policy.

Education and Career Structure.

It is possible to estimate that over the past 10 to 15 years over 500 riders have passed through the ranks of the elite and professional cycling in Australia. Of these, the anecdotal evidence we have collected as part of our current project suggests that only about six riders (or less than 1%) have moved into the AUD $1,000,000 plus salary bracket. Many others have not even approached this figure during the entire length of their careers. Indeed, teams may offer no guaranteed or minimum wage, and riders frequently are non-salaried (receiving only material support in the form of the tools of their trade), or have ‘bought’ their own contracts with the hope of capitalising on the ‘investment’ in their careers.
We have heard comments from older and retired riders that they left the sport with very little income or savings to support themselves in their post cycling careers. Similarly, many riders have told us that on leaving the sport they did not possess the relevant skills necessary to start a new working career. Educational support for them during their cycling careers has been unavailable, inadequate or not tailored to the demands of their existence.

Lentillon-Kaestner and Carstairs (2009) emphasise the need to understand “the link between doping and sporting careers” (p.1). They also note that to reduce doping use, it is important for cyclists to maintain relationships outside cycling and to have something else besides cycling, such as studies (p.8).

In his work on economics, corruption and doping Maenning (2002), identifies various factors or behavioural determinants affecting micro economic calculations and doping. These include income, moral qualms and short and long-term health risks. He further identifies “variables such as intelligence, age, education, wealth and family background as being included in the explanation of whether an individual has recourse to illicit behaviour” (p. 63).

For our purposes Maenning’s comments in relation to education and morals (or ethics) are revealing where he noted, “an individual who is less educated and talented … is more likely to choose an illegal course of action. Individuals with extensive moral qualms … reject illegal behaviour across a greater range of realizations of the other variables.” (p. 63). Maenning also noted that “the supply of illicit behaviour will be determined by the distribution of ethical values within the population.” (p. 63).

One consistently thematised aspect of the research (Deakin 2009) has been the interviewees’ concern about the relationship between the lack of adequate post career financial planning (e.g. pension or superannuation schemes or the like for professional cyclists) and the choices made in relation to doping.

We seek to test the hypothesis that:

- first, the relationship between education, career structure, community norms, contractual arrangements and anti-doping sanctions determine doping behaviour; and,
- second, that a focus on these factors can alter, reduce or eliminate doping.
We have developed these hypotheses in the light of comments made by interviewees in our current project concerning the need for job security and adequate post career planning.

Norms, Morals, Ethics and anti-doping.

Our interest in the social nature of the peloton as a community leads us to consider whether various ethical theories and practices can be introduced as part of the process of building character and value systems. The classic works of Plato and Aristotle on sport and society, virtue and equity, provide us with a rich starting point with which to consider these issues. More recently the work of Markula and Pringle (2006) and Hickey and Kelly (2009) introduce the concepts of the care of the self, or the ethics of self care into a sporting context.
According to Markula and Pringle morality is “a set of values and rules of action that are recommended to individuals through the intermediary of various prescriptive agencies” (p.140 ff). Any such morality can consist of two aspects: the moral code which denotes the prescriptions for ‘good’ conduct, and moral acts which denote the way individuals actually behave based upon the prescription (i.e. how carefully they follow the code). These authors generally distinguish three aspects of the moral code: it determines first which acts are forbidden, second, which behaviours have positive or negative value and, third, how the individual is supposed to constitute himself as a moral subject of his own actions. It is this third aspect that is termed an ethics. The link between education, career and ethics is at the core of our proposed study.

Sustainable change takes place in the area of ethics: the manner in which one ought to form oneself as an ethical subject in relation to the prescriptive elements of the code. As Markula and Pringle noted (p. 141), and as our current project illustrates, the individual, while obeying the general principles, can respond to the code in different ways by choosing from a variety of ways to ‘conduct oneself morally’. This process of ‘individualising’ the code or self-constitution may be divided into four ‘aspects’: the ethical substance, mode of subjection, ethical work and telos (p. 141). Another quote from the current research project illustrates the link between anti-doping and ethics:

Certainly finding a way to change that culture (through the ethical or moral development of the cyclists) is really the only sustainable option, I suspect. … what you can do is address the larger part of the bell curve about doping and maybe shift it a bit, so in fact it affects everyone anyway … so if you can shift the bulk a little bit it is much better than spending a lot of resources on the tail of the bell curve, where you only get perhaps shifting by a minority … it is much better to attack the body, or the corpus of the sport, and get some movement which in fact ends up being a large movement.

Furthermore, Arjun Appadurai (1996) suggests that sport represents a “hard cultural form” that links value, meaning and embodied practice in a way that proves difficult to break. It therefore changes those who participate in it, and is resolutely intransigent to change itself. This process is reinforced by the institutionalisation of sport. Individual athletes who learn about their bodies and therefore themselves through their participation in sport are therefore likely to maintain the ethos of their institutionalisation rather than question and recode the same cultural forms through individual reflection and choice.

What we seek to explore in the context of the work on ethics and the care of the self (both the individual and community) is whether there is a place here for re-introducing the ‘power’ of the peloton, as a source of normalising ethics for anti-doping policy in professional cycling? In the context of 'the code', that is the field of forces in which the cyclist lives and works - a set of anti-doping values promoted by governments, national and state institutes, national and international anti-doping agencies and sporting authorities; we seek to explore the relevance of the following questions in the context of a professional cyclist’s career and educational pathways:

• What aspect of these values call for the cyclists’ ethical intervention?
• Why should the cyclists engage in ethical self transformation?
• What techniques are available to the cyclists?
• What mode of being/life/existence do the cyclists aim for?

The Whole/Well Rounded Athlete.

In the interviews conducted to date we have identified that some cyclists and their teams are starting to consider sport in a much broader way than simply winning. Being well rounded, a tradesperson, craftsperson, a little bit of an artist, are themes that emerged during the interviews.

These and other indicative comments concerning the social nature of the peloton, education, career planning and anti-doping raise the question as to whether a holistic approach proposed by Petroczi and Aidman (2008) would be effective as a complementary tool alongside the current models of anti-doping policy. The holistic approach proposed by Petroczi and Aidman emphasises choices, health issues and broader life goals in order for athletes to make informed decisions about their performance enhancement, which they argue may lead – at a population level – to a sustainable change in doping behaviour.

The notion of developing the athlete holistically extends from the debate around whether elite sports should be about processes or outcomes. The idea that a happy athlete is one who performs well and is one who has more than their single (cycling) identity, with social roles in, for example, education, family and society.
This engages the ideas discussed by Houlihan (2004) that current anti-doping policy degrades the athlete by making them the object rather than the subject. In investigating career structures, education and social norms we seek to investigate ways in which anti-doping and sports policy in general could be further configured around the ideas of building the character and value systems of the athlete rather than limiting them. The question we seek to explore concerns whether if we prioritise the athlete as a person instead of, solely focused on, winning, does the nature of the problem and its regulation change?


Tasks required in relation to benchmarking athlete educational programs include to:
• identify and examine existing education systems that are in place in professional cycling;
• examine the educational models used in other professional sports;
• compare the range and scope of programs in place in other sports with those in professional cycling;
• examine whether and how it is possible to mandate compulsory education in pro cycling in the manner this has been done in other sports; and
• examine the dispersed and nomadic lifestyle of the athletes and the sport's structure.

Field Research.

Benchmarking requires desk research, field research, semi-structured interviews and meetings:
• with other sports organisations to examine existing educational programs (such as golf, cricket, the AFL, soccer and the rugby codes);
• to examine the existing institutional structures of professional cycling and their capacity to effectively deliver such programs;
• to examine the ability of such institutions to effectively intervene and influence the day to day lives of professional cyclists at different levels; and
• to undertake embedded research observing the day to day lives of cyclists (in both the race and training contexts) in order to ascertain how ongoing educational programs could be structured within the constraints of the day to day and seasonal lives of professional cyclists.

Semi-Structured Interviews.
The themes of career structure and sustainability and education and their relationship to anti-doping have been consistently raised in Deakin's current research project. Although we have asked questions, received responses and engaged in discussions around these topics, given the broad nature of our semi-structured interviews and the time available for each interview (generally between 45 minutes and 2 hours) we have not been able to pursue these topics in the depth and detail that we now believe is necessary. As such in conjunction with the planning and delivery of the pilot programs and other field work proposed herein we would seek to engage in a second set of interviews with team directors, coaches, administrators and athletes to further explore and develop these themes.

Embedded field work, semi-structured interviews and workshops are all mechanisms which allow the researcher to engage in qualitative methods of co-research. Co-research provides a process of enquiry that draws upon the complementary perspectives, skills and knowledge bases of the researchers and the practitioners of a particular area (Hartley and Benington 2000). Co-research thus recognises the perspectives of stakeholders in the production of knowledge and their understandings of their organisational milieu and ethical practices. Using techniques of co-research it is possible to engage in the generation of knowledge production and possibilities for organisational change which can be disseminated through action as well as reports to the peers of both researchers and the various stakeholders.

Preliminary and Pilot Workshops.
We propose to deliver a series of preliminary and pilot educational workshops around the research topic themes with members of the peloton and their cohort. These workshops would be delivered at training camps or in other times suitably timed within the Australian cycling season.

A preliminary sketch of possible workshop topics includes:
• Ethics, including the ethics of self and community care and ethical performance;
• Modes of communication, decision making and organisation within formal institutions and the informal structures of the cycling (peloton);
• Philosophy, ethics, virtue, equity and aesthetics of sport;
• Legal issues including anti-doping, sports law, principles of administrative law and practice;
• The economic framework of cycling in particular and in relation to other sports;
• The norms of the sport in the context of rapid commercialisation;
• The athlete as a stakeholder in, and beneficiary and trustee of, the sport;
• Financial issues and planning;
• What to look for in agents, management and sponsorship;
• Sporting and cycling cultures and social history;
• Cycling and sustainability;
• Building a sustainable sport based upon an active doping culture - “why we don't dope”;
• Anti-doping strategies as a choice for sustainability; and
• The meaning and redefining of success and professionalism in professional cycling.

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It is now possible to improve human sporting performance using genetic enhancements. For the time being, these enhancements bear serious health risks, which give us a clear moral imperative to try to prevent athletes from using them. On the other hand, they will be much harder to detect than normal drug-based performance enhancements, and the available detection methods are likely to be more invasive. In particular, the compulsory genetic testing of athletes needs a strong ethical justification. If the health risks decrease over time, should we continue testing athletes for 'gene doping'? The answers depend on the level of risk, the chance of catching the dopers, the intrusiveness of the testing strategy, and on whether we believe gene doping is really as bad as drug-based doping. This article identifies the cases for which testing can be justified, and those for which it cannot. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Copyright of International SportMed Journal is the property of International Federation of Sports Medicine and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

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Foucault, M., M. Senellart, et al. (2008). The birth of biopolitics : lectures at the College de France, 1978-1979. Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan.
"Michel Foucault's 1979 lectures at the College de France, The Birth of Biopolitics, pursue and develop further the themes of his lectures from the previous year, Security, Territory, Population. Having shown how eighteenth century political economy marks the birth of a new governmental reason, Foucault undertakes the detailed analysis of the forms of this liberal governmentality. This involves describing the political rationality within which the specific problems of life and population were posed: "Studying liberalism as the general framework of biopolitics."" "What are the specific features of the liberal art of government as they were outlined in the eighteenth century? What crisis of governmentality characterizes the present world and what revisions of liberal government has it given rise to? This is the diagnostic task addressed by Foucault's study of the two major twentieth century schools of neo-liberalism: German ordoliberalism and the neo-liberalism of the Chicago School. In the years he taught at the College de France, this was Michel Foucault's sole foray into the field of contemporary history. This course raises questions of political philosophy and social policy that are at the heart of current debates about the role and status of neo-liberalism in twentieth century politics. A remarkable feature of these lectures is their discussion of contemporary economic theory and practice, culminating in an analysis of the model of homo oeconomicus, or economic man." "Foucault's analysis also highlights the paradoxical role played by "society" in relation to government. "Society" is that in the name of which government strives to limit itself, but it is also the target for permanent governmental intervention to produce, multiply, and guarantee the freedoms required by economic liberalism. Far from being opposed to the State, civil society is thus shown to be the correlate of a liberal technology of government."--BOOK JACKET.

Foucault, M., M. Senellart, et al. (2007). Security, territory, population : lectures at the Collège de France, 1977-1978. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire ; New York, Palgrave Macmillan.
"Marking a major development in Foucault's thinking, this book derives from the lecture course which he gave at the College de France between January and April, 1978. Taking as his starting point the notion of "bio-power," introduced both in his 1976 course Society Must be Defended and in the first volume of his History of Sexuality, Foucault sets out to study the emergence of this new technology of power over population."--BOOK JACKET.

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This Article is about the United States Government trading off athletes' constitutional rights in the pursuit of national prestige through sport. The Olympic Movement has for decades provided an incentive for governments of all ideologies to use elite athletes to enhance national prestige or demonstrate national supremacy. This phenomenon is commonly known as "sportive nationalism." Unlike countries such as the former East Germany and Soviet Union, the United States Government has not readily acknowledged its own practice of sportive nationalism, preferring instead to assert that Olympic Movement sport in the United States is a private endeavor. This Article, however, demonstrates that the United States has in fact practiced its own brand of sportive nationalism--previously as a foreign policy tool during the Cold War and today as part of the worldwide fight against athletic doping. This Article explains that the practice of United States sportive nationalism is accomplished through the United States Olympic Committee and now the United States Anti-Doping Agency, both of which serve as "private" Olympic Movement regulators. This private sector status of sport regulation in the United States has created a significant accountability vacuum so that manifestations of sportive nationalism that threaten athletes' eligibility, like the war on doping, largely go unchecked. As a result, athletes' constitutional liberty and property interests are threatened because there is no incentive to give, and in fact athletes are not given meaningful due process protections to protect their eligibility. Accordingly, this Article argues that steps should be taken to promote greater accountability for sportive nationalism in the United States Olympic Movement, so that the athletes who serve to enhance our nation's prestige do not risk their due process rights in the process. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Copyright of Brigham Young University Law Review is the property of Brigham Young University Law School and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

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BACKGROUND:For effective deterrence methods, individual, systemic and situational factors that make an athlete or athlete group more susceptible to doping than others should be fully investigated. Traditional behavioural models assume that the behaviour in question is the ultimate end. However, growing evidence suggests that in doping situations, the doping behaviour is not the end but a means to an end, which is gaining competitive advantage. Therefore, models of doping should include and anti-doping policies should consider attitudes or orientations toward the specific target end, in addition to the attitude toward the 'tool' itself.OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to empirically test doping related dispositions and attitudes of competitive athletes with the view of informing anti-doping policy developments and deterrence methods. To this end, the paper focused on the individual element of the drug availability - athlete's personality - situation triangle.METHODS:Data were collected by questionnaires containing a battery of psychological tests among competitive US male college athletes (n = 199). Outcome measures included sport orientation (win and goal orientation and competitiveness), doping attitude, beliefs and self-reported past or current use of doping. A structural equation model was developed based on the strength of relationships between these outcome measures.RESULTS:Whilst the doping model showed satisfactory fit, the results suggested that athletes' win and goal orientation and competitiveness do not play a statistically significant role in doping behaviour, but win orientation has an effect on doping attitude. The SEM analysis provided empirical evidence that sport orientation and doping behaviour is not directly related.CONCLUSION:The considerable proportion of doping behaviour unexplained by the model suggests that other factors play an influential role in athletes' decisions regarding prohibited methods. Future research, followed by policy development, should incorporate these factors to capture the complexity of the doping phenomenon and to identify points for effective anti-doping interventions. Sport governing bodies and anti-doping organisations need to recognise that using performance enhancements may be more of a rational, outcome optimizing behaviour than deviance and consider offering acceptable alternative performance-enhancing methods to doping.

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In Foucault's Discipline, John S. Ransom extracts a distinctive vision of the political world - and oppositional possibilities within it - from the welter of disparate topics and projects Michel Foucault pursued over his lifetime. Uniquely, Ransom presents Foucault as a political theorist in the tradition of Weber and Nietzsche, and specifically examines Foucault's work in relation to the political tradition of liberalism and the Frankfurt School. By concentrating primarily on Discipline and Punish and the later Foucauldian texts, Ransom provides a fresh interpretation of this controversial philosopher's perspectives on concepts such as freedom, right, truth, and power.
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